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Wildlife & Traffic

A European Handbook for Identifying Conflicts and Designing Solutions

7 Solutions to reduce transport infrastructure impacts on wildlife

Updated version (2022). Produced in cooperation with the project Horizon 2020 BISON. ‘Biodiversity and infrastructure synergies and opportunities for European transport networks’.

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7.5 References

Altringham, J. D., Berthinussen, A., & Wordley, C. F. R. (2020). Generating, collating and using evidence for conservation. Conservation Research, Policy and Practice, 48–62.

ANIMEX (2021). The Wildlife Fencing Guide: Amphibians, Reptiles & Small Mammals. 2021. Version 1 ISBN: 978-1-7399628-0-7

Ascensão, F., Clevenger, A., Santos-Reis, M., Urbano, P., & Jackson, N. (2013). Wildlife-vehicle collision mitigation: Is partial fencing the answer? An agent-based model approach. Ecological Modelling, 257, 36–43.

Ascensão, F. & Mira, A. (2007). Factors affecting culvert use by vertebrates along two stretchesof road in southern Portugal. Ecological Restoration, 22:57-66.

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Babińska-Werka, J., Krauze-Gryz, D., Wasilewski, M., & Jasińska, K. (2015). Effectiveness of an acoustic wildlife warning device using natural calls to reduce the risk of train collisions with animals. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 38, 6–14.

Bain, T. (2014). Evaluating the Effect of Moisture in Wildlife Crossing Tunnels on the Migration of the California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma californiense.

Barré, K., Spoelstra, K., Bas, Y., Challéat, S., Kiri Ing, R., Azam, C., Zissis, G., Lapostolle, D., Kerbiriou, C. & Le Viol, I. (2020). Artificial light may change flight patterns of bats near bridges along urban waterways. Animal Conservation. https://doi. org/10.1111/acv.12635

Barthelmess, E. L. (2014) Spatial distribution of road-kills and factors influencing road mortality for mammals in Northern New York State. Biodiversity Conservation, 23:2491–2514. doi:10.1007/s10531-014-0734-2

Baudoin J. M., Burgun V., Chanseau M., Larinier M., Ovidio M., Sremski W., Steinbach P. & Voegtle B., 2014. Assessing the passage of obstacles by fish. Concepts, design and application. Onema. 200 pages.

Benten, A., Annighöfer, P., & Vor, T. (2018b). Wildlife warning reflectors’ Potential to mitigate wildlife-vehicle Collisions-A review on the evaluation methods. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6(APR), 1–12.

Benten, A., Balkenhol, N., Vor, T., & Ammer, C. (2019). Wildlife warning reflectors do not alter the behavior of ungulates to reduce the risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 65(5).

Benten, A., Hothorn, T., Vor, T., & Ammer, C. (2018a). Wildlife warning reflectors do not mitigate wildlife–vehicle collisions on roads. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 120(August), 64–73.

Berndt, C. V. (2021). Behavioural responses of ungulates to sound systems – Can simulated risk influence behaviour? Master thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU.

Berthinussen, A., & Altringham, J. (2012). Do bat gantries and underpasses help bats cross roads safely? PLoS ONE, 7(6).

Berthinussen, A., & Altringham, J. (2015). WC1060 Development of a cost-effective method for monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation for bats crossing linear transport infrastructure. Final report 2015. 203.

Bhardwaj, M., Olsson, M., & Seiler, A. (2020a). Ungulate use of non-wildlife underpasses. Journal of Environmental Management, 273: 111095.

Bhardwaj, M., Soanes, K., Lahoz-Monfort, J. J., Lumsden, L. F. & van der Ree, R. (2020b). Artificial lighting reduces the effectiveness of wildlife-crossing structures for insectivorous bats. Journal of Environmental Management, 262:110313. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110313

Biedenweg, T. A., Parsons, M. H., Fleming, P. A., & Blumstein, D. T. (2011). Sounds scary? Lack of habituation following the presentation of novel sounds. PLoS ONE, 6(1).

Birot, H., Campera, M., Imron, M. A. & Nekaris, K. A. I. (2019). Artificial canopy bridges improve connectivity in fragmented landscapes: the case of javan slow lorises in an agroforest environment. American Journal of Primatology, 82(4):1-10.

Blázquez-Cabrera, S., Gastón, A., Beier, P., Garrote, G., Simón, M. Á., & Saura, S. (2016). Influence of separating home range and dispersal movements on characterizing corridors and effective distances. Landscape Ecology, 31(10), 2355–2366.

Bliss-Ketchum, L. L., de Rivera, C. E., Turner, B. C. & Weisbaum, D. M. (2016). The effect of artificial light on wildlife use of a passage structure. Biological Conservation, 199:25–28.

Brieger, F., Hagen, R., Kröschel, M., Hartig, F., Petersen, I., Ortmann, S., & Suchant, R. (2017). Do roe deer react to wildlife warning reflectors? A test combining a controlled experiment with field observations. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 63(5).

Brieger, F., Hagen, R., Vetter, D., Dormann, C. F., & Storch, I. (2016). Effectiveness of light-reflecting devices: A systematic reanalysis of animal-vehicle collision data. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 97, 242–260.

Brieger, F., Schmüser, H., Strein, M., Reck, H., & Winter, A. (Unpublished). Wirtschaftliche Randbedingungen für die Herstellung und die Unterhaltung von Wildschutzmaßnahmen an Bundesfernstraßen (BAB, anbaufreie Bundesstraßen mit Wildunfallschwerpunkt nach WSchuZR). Final report. FE 03.0525/2013/FRB. Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt).

Bullock, K. L., Malan, G. & Pretorius, M. D. (2011). Mammal and bird road mortalities on the Upington to Twee Rivieren main road in the southern Kalahari, South Africa. African Zoology, 46: 60–71.

Cerema (2021). Les passages à faune. Préserver et restaurer les continuités écologiques, avec les infrastructures linéaires de transport. Bron : Cerema, 2021. Collection : références. ISBN : 978-2-37180-525-5 (pdf)

Challéat, S., Barré, K., Laforge, A., Lapostolle, D., Franchomme, M., Sirami, C., Le Viol, I., Milian, J. & Kerbiriou, C. (2021). Grasping darkness: the dark ecological network as a social-ecological framework to limit the impacts of light pollution on biodiversity. Ecology and Society, 26 (1),15.

CIE 150 (2017). Guide on the limitation of the effects of obstrusive light from outdoor lighting installations. 2nd Edition. ISBN: 978-3-902842-48-0. DOI: 10.25039/TR.150.2017

Claireau, F., Bas, Y., Puechmaille, S. J., Julien, J. F., Allegrini, B., & Kerbiriou, C. (2019). Bat overpasses: An insufficient solution to restore habitat connectivity across roads. Journal of Applied Ecology, 56(3), 573–584.

Clevenger, A. P., Chruszcz, B., & Gunson, K. E. (2001). Effectiveness of highway mitigation fencing at reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29(2), 646–653.

Clevenger, A. P. & Huijser, M. (2011). Wildlife crossing structure handbook. Design and evaluation in North America. Technical report No. FHWA-CFL/TD-11-003. Western Transportation Institute. Bozeman – United States of America. 223 pp.

Clevenger, A. P. & Sawaya, M. A. (2010). Piloting a non-invasive genetic sampling method for evaluating population-level benefits of wildlife crossing structures. Ecology and Society, 15(1), 7 iss1/art7/

Clevenger, A. P. & Waltho, N. (2005). Performance indices to identify attributes of highway crossing structures facilitating movement of large mammals. Biological Conservation, 121 (3), 453-464, 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.04.025

Closs, G. P., Krkosek, M. & Olden J. D. (Eds.). (2016). Conservation of freshwater fishes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 600pp.

Conference of European Directors of Roads (2009). Report 2009/10.2: Road lighting & Safety. 26pp.

Coulson, G., & Bender, H. (2019). Roadkill mitigation is paved with good intentions: A critique of Fox et al. (2019). Australian Mammalogy, 42(1), 122–130.

D’Angelo, G. J., DÁngelo, J. G., Gallagher, G. R., Osborn, D. A., Miller, K. V., Warren, R. J. (2006). Evaluation of Wildlife Warning Reflectors for Altering White-Tailed Deer Behavior Along Roadways. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34(4), 1175–1183.[1175:eowwrf];2

D’Angelo, G., & van der Ree, R. (2015). Use of Reflectors and Auditory Deterrents to Prevent Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions. In: van der Ree, R., Smith, D., Grilo, C. (Eds.), Handbook of Road Ecology. John Wiley & Sons. Oxford, 213–218.

Das, J., Biswas, J., Bhattacherjee, P. C. & Rao, S. S. (2009). Canopy bridges: an effective conservation tactic for supporting gibbon populations in forest fragments. In: Lappan S, Whittaker DJ, (Eds.). The gibbons: new perspectives on small ape socioecology and population biology. New York, US: Springer. pp. 467–475

Degen,  T.,  Mitesser,  O.,  Perkin,  E. K.,  Weiß,  N. S.,  Oehlert,  M.,  Mattig,  E.  &  Hölker,  F.  (2016).  Street  lighting:  Sex‐independent  impacts  on  moth movement. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85,  1352–1360.‐2656.12540.

Denneboom, D., Bar-Massada, A., & Shwartz, A. (2021). Factors affecting usage of crossing structures by wildlife – A systematic review and meta-analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 777, 146061.

Elmeros, M., & Dekker, J. (2016). SafeBatPaths. Fumbling in the dark – effectiveness of bat mitigation measures on roads. Final report. 19.

Elmeros, M., Dekker, J., Baagøe, H. J., Garin, I., & Christensen, M. (2016). Bat mitigation on roads in Europe – an overview. 63.

Elmeros, M., Winbladh, J. K., Andersen, P. N., Madsen, A. B., & Christensen, J. T. (2011). Effectiveness of odour repellents on red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): A field test. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 57(6), 1223–1226.

Englefield, B., Candy, S. G., Starling, M., & McGreevy, P. D. (2019). to Mitigate Roadkill in Tasmania , Australia.

Falcón, J., Torriglia, A., Attia, D., Viénot, F., Gronfier, C., Behar-Cohen, F., Martinsons, C. & Hicks, D. (2020). Exposure to artificial light at night and the consequences for flora, fauna, and ecosystems. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14, 602796. https://doi. org/10.3389/fnins.2020.602796

Found, R. & Boyce, M. S. (2011). Warning signs mitigate deer– vehicle collisions in an urban area. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 35, 291–295.

Fox, S., Potts, J. M., Pemberton, D., & Crosswell, D. (2019). Roadkill mitigation: Trialing virtual fence devices on the west coast of Tasmania. Australian Mammalogy, 41(2), 205–211.

Gagnon, J., Raskin, M, Remache, J. & Sack, B. (2011). Large-scale Asset Purchases by the Federal Reserve: Did They Work?. No. 441,

Hamer, A. J., Langton, T. E. S., & Lesbarrères, D. (2015). Making a Safe Leap Forward: Mitigating Road Impacts on Amphibians. In: van der Ree, R., Smith, D., Grilo, C. (Eds.), Handbook of Road Ecology. John Wiley & Sons. Oxford, pp. 261–270.

Helldin, J. O., & Petrovan, S. O. (2019). Effectiveness of small road tunnels and fences in reducing amphibian roadkill and barrier effects at retrofitted roads in Sweden. PeerJ, 2019(8).

Hill, I. D. C., Rossi, C. A., Petrovan, S. O., Hartup, M., Clark, F., & Downie, J. R. (2018). Mitigating the effects of a road on amphibian migrations: a Scottish case study of road tunnels. The Glasgow Naturalist, 27(Supplement), 25–36.

Hlaváč, V., Anděl, P., Větrovcová, J., Dostál, I., Strnad, M., Immerová, B., Kadlečík, J., Meyer, H., Moț, R., Pavelko, A., Hahn, E. & Georgiadis, L. (2019). Wildlife and traffic in the Carpathians. Guidelines how to minimize impact of transport infrastructure development on nature in the Carpathian countries. Danube Transnational Programme TRANSGREEN Project, The State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic, Banská Bystrica, 2019, 226 pp.

Hotchkiss, R. H. & Frei, C. M. (2007). Design for fish passage at roadway-stream crossings: Synthesis report. FHWA-HIF 07-033. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia, USA.

Huijser, M. P., Mosler-Berger, C., Olsson, M. & Strein, M. (2015). Wildlife warning signs and animal detection systems aimed at reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions. In: van der Ree, R., Smith, D., Grilo, C. (Eds.), Handbook of Road Ecology. John Wiley & Sons. Oxford, pp. 198–212.

Huijser M. P., Fairbank E. R., Camel-Means, W., Graham, J., Watson, V., Basting, P. & Becker, D. (2016). Effectiveness of short sections of wildlife fencing and crossing structures along highways in reducing wildlife—vehicle collisions and providing safe crossing opportunities for large mammals. Biological Conservation, 197, 61– 68.

Iuell, B., Bekker, G.J., Cuperus, R., Dufek, J., Fry, G., Hicks, C., Hlaváĉ, V., Keller, V., B., Rosell, C., Sangwine, T., Tørsløv, N., Wandall, B. le Maire, (Eds.) (2003). Wildlife and Traffic: A European Handbook for Identifying Conflicts and Designing Solutions. KNNV Uitgeverij; 1st edition. ISBN: ‎ 9050111866. 176pp.

Jaeger, J.A.G. & Re, S. (2021). Wildlife fencing, the FLOMS trade-off, and the fence-end effect: How long is long enough? ICOET 2021 International Conference.

Jarvis, L. E., Hartup, M., & Petrovan, S. O. (2019). Road mitigation using tunnels and fences promotes site connectivity and population expansion for a protected amphibian. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 65(2).

Jochimsen, D. M., Peterson, C. R., Andrews, K. M., Gibbons, J. W., & Service, U. F. (2004). A Literature Review of the effects of Roads on Amphibians and Reptiles and the Measures Used to Minimize Those Effects. Ecology, November, 0–78.

Kämmerle, J. L., Brieger, F., Kröschel, M., Hagen, R., Storch, I., & Suchant, R. (2017). Temporal patterns in road crossing behaviour in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) at sites with wildlife warning reflectors. PLoS ONE, 12(9), 1–18.

Klar, N., Herrmann, M., & Kramer-Schadt, S. (2009). Effects and Mitigation of Road Impacts on Individual Movement Behavior of Wildcats. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73(5), 631–638.

Knufinke, J. F., Helldin, J. O., Bhardwaj, M. & Olsson, M. (2021). Temporal patterns of humans and ungulates at bridges: Co-existence or disturbance? IENE 2020 International Conference.

Langton, T. E. S. & Clevenger, A. P. (2021). Measures to Reduce Road Impacts on Amphibians and Reptiles in California. Best Management Practices and Technical Guidance. Prepared by Western Transportation Institute for California Department of Transportation, Division of Research, Innovation and System Information. 128pp.

Lesbarrères, D., Lodé, T., & Merilä, J. (2004). What type of amphibian tunnel could reduce road kills? Oryx, 38(2), 220–223.

Lodnert, D. (2021). Evaluating the behavioural response of moose (Alces alces) to acoustic stimuli. Master´s thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU.

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