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Wildlife & Traffic

A European Handbook for Identifying Conflicts and Designing Solutions

7 Solutions to reduce transport infrastructure impacts on wildlife

Updated version (2022). Produced in cooperation with the project Horizon 2020 BISON. ‘Biodiversity and infrastructure synergies and opportunities for European transport networks’.

Original version (2003)

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7.5 References

Altringham, J. D., Berthinussen, A., & Wordley, C. F. R. (2020). Generating, collating and using evidence for conservation. Conservation Research, Policy and Practice, 48–62.

ANIMEX (2021). The Wildlife Fencing Guide: Amphibians, Reptiles & Small Mammals. 2021. Version 1 ISBN: 978-1-7399628-0-7.

Ascensão, F., Clevenger, A., Santos-Reis, M., Urbano, P., & Jackson, N. (2013). Wildlife-vehicle collision mitigation: Is partial fencing the answer? An agent-based model approach. Ecological Modelling, 257, 36–43.

Babińska-Werka, J., Krauze-Gryz, D., Wasilewski, M., & Jasińska, K. (2015). Effectiveness of an acoustic wildlife warning device using natural calls to reduce the risk of train collisions with animals. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 38, 6–14.

Bain, T. (2014). Evaluating the Effect of Moisture in Wildlife Crossing Tunnels on the Migration of the California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma californiense.

Baudoin, J. M., Burgun, V., & … (2015). Assessing the passage of obstacles by fish. Concepts, Design ….

Benten, A., Annighöfer, P., & Vor, T. (2018). Wildlife warning reflectors’ Potential to mitigate wildlife-vehicle Collisions-A review on the evaluation methods. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6(APR), 1–12.

Benten, A., Balkenhol, N., Vor, T., & Ammer, C. (2019). Wildlife warning reflectors do not alter the behavior of ungulates to reduce the risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 65(5).

Benten, A., Hothorn, T., Vor, T., & Ammer, C. (2018). Wildlife warning reflectors do not mitigate wildlife–vehicle collisions on roads. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 120(August), 64–73.

Berthinussen, A., & Altringham, J. (2012). Do bat gantries and underpasses help bats cross roads safely? PLoS ONE, 7(6).

Berthinussen, A., & Altringham, J. (2015). WC1060 Development of a cost-effective method for monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation for bats crossing linear transport infrastructure. Final report 2015. 203.

Bhardwaj, M., Olsson, M., & Seiler, A. (2020). Ungulate use of non-wildlife underpasses. Journal of Environmental Management, 273(January), 111095.

Biedenweg, T. A., Parsons, M. H., Fleming, P. A., & Blumstein, D. T. (2011). Sounds scary? Lack of habituation following the presentation of novel sounds. PLoS ONE, 6(1).

Blazquez-Cabrera, S., Gastón, A., Beier, P., Garrote, G., Simón, M. Á., & Saura, S. (2016). Influence of separating home range and dispersal movements on characterizing corridors and effective distances. Landscape Ecology, 31(10), 2355–2366.

Borda-de-Água, L., Barrientos, R., Beja, P., & Pereira, H. M. (2017). Railway ecology. Railway Ecology, 1–320.

Brieger, F., Hagen, R., Kröschel, M., Hartig, F., Petersen, I., Ortmann, S., & Suchant, R. (2017). Do roe deer react to wildlife warning reflectors? A test combining a controlled experiment with field observations. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 63(5).

Brieger, F., Hagen, R., Vetter, D., Dormann, C. F., & Storch, I. (2016). Effectiveness of light-reflecting devices: A systematic reanalysis of animal-vehicle collision data. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 97, 242–260.

Brieger, F., Schmüser, H., Strein, M., Reck, H., & Winter, A. (Unpublished). Wirtschaftliche Randbedingungen für die Herstellung und die Unterhaltung von Wildschutzmaßnahmen an Bundesfernstraßen (BAB, anbaufreie Bundesstraßen mit Wildunfallschwerpunkt nach WSchuZR). Final report. FE 03.0525/2013/FRB. Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt).

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Claireau, F., Bas, Y., Puechmaille, S. J., Julien, J. F., Allegrini, B., & Kerbiriou, C. (2019). Bat overpasses: An insufficient solution to restore habitat connectivity across roads. Journal of Applied Ecology, 56(3), 573–584.

Clevenger, A. P., Chruszcz, B., & Gunson, K. E. (2001). Effectiveness of highway mitigation fencing at reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29(2), 646–653.

Coulson, G., & Bender, H. (2019). Roadkill mitigation is paved with good intentions: A critique of Fox et al. (2019). Australian Mammalogy, 42(1), 122–130.

D’ANGELO, G. J., D’ANGELO, J. G., GALLAGHER, G. R., OSBORN, D. A., MILLER, K. V., & WARREN, R. J. (2006). Evaluation of Wildlife Warning Reflectors for Altering White-Tailed Deer Behavior Along Roadways. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34(4), 1175–1183.[1175:eowwrf];2

D’Angelo, G., & Van Der Ree, R. (2015). Use of Reflectors and Auditory Deterrents to Prevent Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions. Handbook of Road Ecology, 213–218.

Denneboom, D., Bar-Massada, A., & Shwartz, A. (2021). Factors affecting usage of crossing structures by wildlife – A systematic review and meta-analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 777, 146061.

Elmeros, M., & Dekker, J. (2016). SafeBatPaths. Fumbling in the dark – effectiveness of bat mitigation measures on roads. Final report. 19.

Elmeros, M., Dekker, J., Baagøe, H. J., Garin, I., & Christensen, M. (2016). Bat mitigation on roads in Europe – an overview. 63.

Elmeros, M., Winbladh, J. K., Andersen, P. N., Madsen, A. B., & Christensen, J. T. (2011). Effectiveness of odour repellents on red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): A field test. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 57(6), 1223–1226.

Englefield, B., Candy, S. G., Starling, M., & McGreevy, P. D. (2019). to Mitigate Roadkill in Tasmania , Australia.

Fox, S., Potts, J. M., Pemberton, D., & Crosswell, D. (2019). Roadkill mitigation: Trialing virtual fence devices on the west coast of Tasmania. Australian Mammalogy, 41(2), 205–211.

Hamer, A. J., Langton, T. E. S., & Lesbarrères, D. (2015). Making a Safe Leap Forward: Mitigating Road Impacts on Amphibians. Handbook of Road Ecology, November 2017, 261–270.

Helldin, J. O., & Petrovan, S. O. (2019). Effectiveness of small road tunnels and fences in reducing amphibian roadkill and barrier effects at retrofitted roads in Sweden. PeerJ, 2019(8).

Hill, I. D. C., Rossi, C. A., Petrovan, S. O., Hartup, M., Clark, F., & Downie, J. R. (2018). Mitigating the effects of a road on amphibian migrations: a Scottish case study of road tunnels. The Glasgow Naturalist, 27(Supplement), 25–36.

Iuell, B., Bekker, G.J., Cuperus, R., Dufek, J., Fry, G., Hicks, C., Hlaváĉ, V., Keller, V., B., Rosell, C., Sangwine, T., Tørsløv, N., Wandall, B. le Maire, (Eds.) (2003). Wildlife and Traffic: A European Handbook for Identifying Conflicts and Designing Solutions. KNNV Uitgeverij; 1st edition. ISBN: ‎ 9050111866. 176pp.

Jarvis, L. E., Hartup, M., & Petrovan, S. O. (2019). Road mitigation using tunnels and fences promotes site connectivity and population expansion for a protected amphibian. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 65(2).

Jochimsen, D. M., Peterson, C. R., Andrews, K. M., Gibbons, J. W., & Service, U. F. (2004). A Literature Review of the effects of Roads on Amphibians and Reptiles and the Measures Used to Minimize Those Effects. Ecology, November, 0–78.

Kämmerle, J. L., Brieger, F., Kröschel, M., Hagen, R., Storch, I., & Suchant, R. (2017). Temporal patterns in road crossing behaviour in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) at sites with wildlife warning reflectors. PLoS ONE, 12(9), 1–18.

Klar, N., Herrmann, M., & Kramer-Schadt, S. (2009). Effects and Mitigation of Road Impacts on Individual Movement Behavior of Wildcats. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73(5), 631–638.

Lesbarrères, D., Lodé, T., & Merilä, J. (2004). What type of amphibian tunnel could reduce road kills? Oryx, 38(2), 220–223.

Lodnert, D. (2021). Evaluating the behavioural response of moose ( Alces alces ) to acoustic stimuli.

Matos, C., Petrovan, S. O., Wheeler, P. M., & Ward, A. I. (2019). Landscape connectivity and spatial prioritization in an urbanising world: A network analysis approach for a threatened amphibian. Biological Conservation, 237(June), 238–247.

Michael, A. S., & Anthony, P. C. (2010). Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures. Ecology and Society, 15(1), 7.

Ministry of Agriculture, F. and the E. (2016). Technical prescriptions for wildlife crossing and fence design (second edition, revised and expanded). Documents for the mitigation of habitat fragmentation caused by transport infrastructure, number 1. 124.

Møller, J. D., Dekker, J., Baagøe, H. J., Garin, I., Alberdi, A., Christensen, M., & Elmeros, M. (2016). SafeBatPaths. Fumbling in the dark – Effectiveness of mitigating measures for bats – a review. CEDR Call 2013: Roads and Wildlife.

Müller, S., & Berthoud, G. (1996). Fauna-traffic safety: manual for civil engineers. Laussane: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne. 119pp.

Naderi, M., Farashi, A., & Erdi, M. A. (2018). Persian leopard’s (Panthera pardus saxicolor) unnatural mortality factors analysis in Iran. PLoS ONE, 13(4), 1–12.

Ottburg, F. G. W. A., & van der Grift, E. A. (2019). Effectiveness of road mitigation for common toads (Bufo bufo) in the Netherlands. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7(FEB), 1–11.

Petrovan, S. O., & Schmidt, B. R. (2019). Neglected juveniles; a call for integrating all amphibian life stages in assessments of mitigation success (and how to do it). Biological Conservation, 236(June), 252–260.

Rytwinski, T., Soanes, K., Jaeger, J. A. G., Fahrig, L., Findlay, C. S., Houlahan, J., Van Ree, R. Der, & Van Der Grift, E. A. (2016). How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 11(11), 1–25.

Schmidt, B.R., Brenneisen, S., & Zumbach, S. (2020). Evidence-Based Amphibian Conservation: A Case Study on Toad Tunnels. Herpetologica 76(2):228-239.

Schmid, H., Heynen, D., Doppler, W., & Rössler, M. (2012). Le Verre Et La Lumière Dans La Construction.

Schmidt, B. R., & Zumbach, S. (2008). Amphibian Road Mortality and How to Prevent it: A Review. Herpetological Conservation, 3, 157–167.

Schmidt, G. M., Lewison, R. L., & Swarts, H. M. (2021). Pairing long-term population monitoring and wildlife crossing structure interaction data to evaluate road mitigation effectiveness. Biological Conservation, 257, 109085.

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Seiler, A., & Olson, M. (2017). Wildlife Deterrent Methods for Railways – An Experimental Study. In: Borda-de-Água, L., Barrientos, R., Beja, P., & Pereira, H. M. (Eds.). Railway Ecology, pp.277–291.

Sołowczuk, A. (2019). Determinants of the performance of bat gantries installed to carry bat commuting routes over the S3 expressway in Poland. Symmetry, 11(8), 3–9.

Spanowicz, A. G., Teixeira, F. Z., & Jaeger, J. A. G. (2020). An adaptive plan for prioritizing road sections for fencing to reduce animal mortality. Conservation Biology, 34(5), 1210–1220.

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Temple, H. J., Anstee, S., Ekstrom, J., Pilgrim, J. D., Rabenantoandro, J., Ramanamanjato, J.-B., Randraitafika, F., & Vincellette, M. (2012). Forecasting the path towards a Net Positive Impact on biodiversity for Rio Tinto QMM. In IUCN and Rio Tinto Technical Series No.2 (Issue 2).

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Van Der Grift, E. A., & Van Der Ree, R. (2015). Guidelines for Evaluating Use of Wildlife Crossing Structures. Handbook of Road Ecology, November 2017, 119–128.

van der Grift, E. A., van der Ree, R., Fahrig, L., Findlay, S., Houlahan, J., Jaeger, J. A. G., Klar, N., Madriñan, L. F., & Olson, L. (2013). Evaluating the effectiveness of road mitigation measures. Biodiversity and Conservation, 22(2), 425–448.

White, K. J., Mayes, W. M., & Petrovan, S. O. (2017). Identifying pathways of exposure to highway pollutants in great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) road mitigation tunnels. Water and Environment Journal, 31(3), 310–316.

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